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Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

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For each vitamin and mineral, we introduce in an easy-to-understand manner the work, the standard of intake, and the typical ingredients that can be ingested. Please use it for your daily diet and health care.

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vitamin

Vitamins are 13 kinds of nutrients in all, and they are the source of vitality for us human beings. You have to take it from food because you can’t make it in your body. Each intake is very small, but you should always try not to run out.

In addition, vitamins can be broadly divided into the following two types.

Water-soluble vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins are just “water-soluble” vitamins. Since it dissolves in water, the excess intake will be excreted together with urine. Also, it is important to be careful about the cooking method as it is fragile when boiled or exposed to water.

Water-soluble vitaminsVitamin B 1 (thiamine)

Main work
  • It is useful when creating energy from sugar.
  • Keeps nerve function normal.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 1.4mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 30 mg for thiamine hydrochloride
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Pork (fillet)
(106g, fillet cutlet about 1.3 pieces)

Soybeans
(about 1/1/3 cup)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are easily tired
  • People who are prone to eye strain
  • People with stiff shoulders and back pain
  • People who exercise hard

 

Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin)

Main work
  • Helps in lipid metabolism.
  • Helps break down lipid peroxides.
  • Promotes the growth of skin, nails and hair.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 1.6mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 30mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Chicken eggs
(about 7.5 in the middle)

Beef liver
(about 55g)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are worried about rough skin
  • People who are prone to mouth ulcer
  • Growing children

 

Niacin (nicotinic acid / nicotinamide)

Main work
  • Retains the function of the skin.
  • It is useful for metabolism of sugars, lipids and proteins.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 15mgNE * 6
Tolerable upper limit * 3 85mg * 7 350mg * 8
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 60mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Tuna (red meat)
(about 75g, about 6 pieces of sashimi)

Cod roe
(about 1/2 belly)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are worried about rough skin
  • People who often drink alcohol
  • People who exercise hard

 

Pantothenic acid

Main work
  • It is useful for the metabolism of lipids, sugars and proteins.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 5mg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 30mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Itohiki Natto
(about 3 packs)

Pork liver
(about 70g)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • Pregnant / lactating women

 

Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine)

Main work
  • Helps in protein metabolism.
  • Keeps nerve function normal.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 1.4mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 60mg
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 100 mg for pyridoxine hydrochloride
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Sanma
(about 2.5 fish)

Banana
(about 3)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are worried about rough skin
  • People who are prone to mouth ulcer
  • Growing children
  • Pregnant woman

 

Vitamin B 12 (cobalamin)

Main work
  • Helps produce red blood cells.
  • Keeps nerve function normal.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 2.4µg
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 1500µg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Pork liver
(about 10g)

Clams
(about 2 small)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • Anemia person
  • People who tend to be biased towards eating only vegetables

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Main work
  • It suppresses the production of melanin pigment.
  • It helps to produce collagen, which helps the formation of skin and blood vessels.
  • Helps produce carnitine, which is involved in energy production.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 100mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 2000mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Potatoes
(about 3 in the middle)

Lemon
(about 1)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are worried about spots and freckles
  • People who smoke a lot
  • People who tend to get blood from their gums
  • People who exercise hard

Folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid)

Main work
  • Helps to make nucleic acids.
  • Helps produce normal red blood cells.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 240µg * 6 (Pregnant woman 480µg)
Tolerable upper limit * 3 1000µg
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 20mg (medical use)
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Beef liver
(about 25g)

Spinach
(about 2/5 bundles)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who don’t like vegetables
  • Anemia person
  • Pregnant / lactating women

Biotin

Main work
  • It is useful for the metabolism of lipids, sugars and proteins.
  • Retains the function of the skin.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 50µg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 0.5mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Flatfish
(about 2 fish)

Soybeans
(1.1 / 5 cups)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are worried about rough skin
  • People who eat a lot of raw eggs every day

 

Fat-soluble vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins that are insoluble in water are not excreted in the urine even if they are ingested more than necessary. Therefore, there is no problem with daily intake, but caution is required as there is a risk of causing excess disease if accumulation occurs due to large intake.

Vitamin A (retinol)

Main work
  • Keeps skin and mucous membranes normal.
  • Prevents the ability of eyes to get used to dark places and deterioration of eyesight.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 900µg RAE * 6 * 7 (3000IU * 8)
Tolerable upper limit * 3 2700µg RAE (9000IU)
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 4000IU
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Eel kabayaki
(about 1/2 skewer)

Carrots
(about 4/5)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who have difficulty seeing things in a dark place
  • People with dry and dry skin
  • Pregnant and lactating women * 9

Vitamin D (calciferol)

Main work
  • Promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
  • Helps form bones and teeth.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 8.5µg (approximate amount) (340IU * 6)
Tolerable upper limit * 3 100µg (4000IU)
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 400IU
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Sanma
(about 1/2 fish)

Flatfish
(about 1/2 fish)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • Pregnant / lactating women
  • Old age person
  • People with weak bones and teeth

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Main work
  • It suppresses the production of lipid peroxide.
  • Activates blood flow in the limbs.
  • Smooths the secretion of hormones.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 6.0mg (approximate amount) * 6
Tolerable upper limit * 3 900mg * 6
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 300mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Safflower oil
(about 2 tablespoons)

Almonds
(17 grains)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People with poor circulation, people with stiff shoulders
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Old age person

Vitamin K (phylloquinone / menaquinone)

Main work
  • By coagulating blood, it helps to stop bleeding.
  • Helps form bones and teeth.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 150µg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Maximum daily dose for adults * 4 50 mg as phylloquinone (medical use)
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 5
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Itohiki Natto
(1/2 pack)

Spinach
(about 1/5 bundle)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who are prone to internal bleeding
  • People taking antibiotics

mineral

Minerals are essential nutrients for us, even in very small amounts. “Minerals” work to improve the condition of the body.

Like vitamins, it is a nutrient that must be taken from food because it cannot be produced by the human body.

Ca (calcium)

Main work
  • Promotes the formation of bones and teeth.
  • It regulates the contractile action of the heart and muscles.
  • It calms the hypersensitivity to nerve stimulation.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 750mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 2500mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Cotton tofu
(2/2/3 chome)

Milk
(about 660 mL)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who don’t like dairy products
  • Growing children
  • Middle-aged women

P (Rin)

Main work
  • It is related to muscle contraction.
  • Promotes the formation of bones and teeth.
  • It is a component of nucleic acid.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 1000mg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3 3000mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

ちりめんじゃこ
(約3・1/2カップ)

Processed cheese
(approx. 140g, 8 slices)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who don’t eat much animal foods such as fish and meat

Mg (magnesium)

Main work
  • Together with calcium, it keeps the heart and blood vessels functioning normally.
  • Helps form bones and teeth.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 370mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Soba
(boiled, about 6 balls)

Dried seaweed
(about 35g)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who exercise hard
  • People who often drink alcohol
  • Older people, pregnant women

K (potassium)

Main work
  • Together with sodium * 5 and calcium, it keeps nerves and muscles functioning normally.
  • Maintains mineral balance inside and outside the cell.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 2500mg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Konbu
(about 40g)

Banana
(about 6)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People with long-term diarrhea
  • People taking diuretics
  • Breastfeeding woman

Fe (iron)

Main work
  • It is a component of hemoglobin that is present in red blood cells and carries oxygen.
  • It is useful for the transfer of electrons that accompany energy production in the body.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 7.5mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 50mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Itohiki Natto
(4.5 packs)

Pork liver
(about 60g)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • Anemia person
  • Female with bleeding
  • Pregnant / lactating women

Cu (copper)

Main work
  • It is a component of an enzyme that suppresses the production of lipid peroxide.
  • Helps in iron metabolism.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 0.9mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 7mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Cocoa
(about 4 tablespoons)

Walnuts
(about 12)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • Anemia person
  • Breastfeeding woman

Mo (molybdenum)

Main work
  • It is a component of enzymes involved in the production of uric acid.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 30µg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 600µg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Pork liver
(25g)

Cotton tofu
(about 1/5)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who eat a lot of processed foods

Cr (chrome)

Main work
  • It enhances the action of insulin and normalizes the metabolism of sugar.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 10µg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3 500µg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Dried hijiki
(about 8 tablespoons)

Potatoes
(about 7 in the middle)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who eat a lot of processed foods

Zn (zinc)

Main work
  • Useful for protein and nucleic acid synthesis.
  • Keeps the taste normal.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 11mg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 45mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Kaki
(5 pieces)

Beef shoulder meat
( 245g )

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who often drink alcohol
  • People who eat a lot of processed foods

Se (selenium)

Main work
  • It is a component of an enzyme that breaks down lipid peroxide.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 30µg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 450µg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Tuna (red meat)
(approx. 40g, 3 slices of sashimi)

Yellowtail
(about 2/3 cut)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who eat a lot of processed foods
  • Breastfeeding woman

Mn (manganese)

Main work
  • It is useful for metabolism of sugars, lipids and proteins.
  • It is a component of an enzyme that suppresses the production of lipid peroxide.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 4mg (approximate amount)
Tolerable upper limit * 3 11mg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Chestnuts
(about 9)

Lotus root
(about 3 sections)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who have had stomach surgery due to stomach ulcer etc.

I (iodine)

Main work
  • It is a component of thyroid hormone.
Recommended amount * 1 (or standard amount * 2) 130µg
Tolerable upper limit * 3 3000µg
Estimated amount when ingesting the recommended amount (or standard amount) with one food * 4
img 01 Vitamin / Mineral Nutrition Encyclopedia

Grilled seaweed
(approx. 6.2g, 2 sheets of all types)

Tara
(about 1/3 cut)

People who should pay particular attention to replenishment
  • People who don’t eat much seaweed and seaweed
  • Pregnant / lactating women

 

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