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Vitamin / Mineral Encyclopedia

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Although vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients for living, they cannot be produced by the body. You have to take it from the outside every day, such as through meals.
There are many types of vitamins and minerals, and their functions are also different. Let’s review our daily diet by becoming familiar with vitamins and minerals.

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Few people seem to be able to get the vitamins they need to stay healthy. Let’s thoroughly review how to take vitamins and how they work.

What are vitamins?

A vitamin that is often heard, but few people have the correct knowledge. Introducing basic knowledge such as its function and classification.

Lubricating oil for your precious body

When it comes to vitamins, many people first think of “vitality” or “health.” In fact, the vitamin “VITA” (VITA) is a word that means “life” or “vitality” and was named with the meaning of a substance that is indispensable to life.
Indeed, it is one of the essential nutrients for human life along with the three major nutrients such as fat, sugar, and protein .

Vitamins help the metabolism of the three major nutrients in the body, and are called micronutrients along with minerals. Unlike fats, sugars, and proteins, it does not become energy, but without it, the “machine” of the body does not work smoothly, so to speak, it works like a “lubricating oil”.

Vitamins that tend to be deficient

Even a small amount of vitamin has a large role, so if it is deficient, it may lead to illness. For example, many people know that deficiency of vitamin B 1 can cause beriberi. In the past, I ate brown rice and seven-minute rice, so I also ate the outer shell, which is high in vitamin B 1 . But now that everyone eats delicious white rice, they lose vitamin B and minerals in the milling.
Of course, eating polished rice does not mean that you are deficient in vitamin B 1, but as in this example, delicious foods and a rich table do not always lead to adequate vitamin intake.

Unlike hormones, most vitamins cannot be made inside the body, so you must take them from the outside, such as food . It is very important to always think about vitamin supplementation in your daily life .

Types of Vitamins-Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin C is often talked about, but do you know how many other types of vitamins there are?
In fact, there are 13 types of vitamins in total. And they are divided into “water-soluble vitamins” of vitamins B and C that are well soluble in water, and “fat-soluble vitamins” of vitamins A, D, E and K that are almost insoluble in water .

Characteristics of water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins

Even if you ingest a large amount of water-soluble vitamins that are easily dissolved in water, the excess in your body will be excreted together with urine, so you do not have to worry about excess illness due to excessive intake. Rather, water-soluble vitamins are fragile depending on how they are stored and cooked, so they tend to be deficient.
On the other hand, fat-soluble vitamins, except E, A, D, and K, are accumulated in the body when taken in large amounts, and may cause excess disease. But don’t worry about the amount you normally take from food.

Water-soluble vitamins B vitamins (vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 6 , B 12 , niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin), vitamin C
Fat-soluble vitamins Vitamins A, D, E, K

Take vitamins well

Vitamins that are necessary for the body but tend to be deficient. Here are some tips for getting good vitamins in your daily life.

Tips for taking vitamins

To get vitamins from food well, you need to devise something.
Since each vitamin works together as a “lubricating oil” for the body, it must be taken “evenly” and “every day”, respectively.

How to get vitamins from food

Tips to take good vitamins from food, the menu five kinds of vegetables at least be used, and, one day 350g or more of vegetables a, of which more than 120g is green and yellow vegetables is to take. Then, it is said that you can get the necessary vitamins.
However, if you live a busy life, it will be very difficult and difficult to carry out the ideal menu that provides all the nutrients from your diet every day. Therefore, if you think “I wonder if today’s menu is a little lacking”, one way is to replenish it with medicine.

Vitamin weaknesses

There is a big difference between the content of the food ingredient list showing the value contained in fresh foods and the vitamin content of actual foods, and vitamin C is about 50% and vitamins due to loss due to cooking such as washing with water and heating. B 1 and B 2 will be reduced to about 60 to 70%.

Vitamins that tend to be deficient

The most deficient in daily life are vitamins B 1 and C , followed by 6 . Therefore , people who are easily tired, stiff shoulders, back pain, etc. should be especially supplemented with vitamin B 1 , and those who are concerned about stains and freckles should be especially supplemented with vitamin C.

Estimated when taking from food

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has set a guideline for the amount of vitamins taken from foods per day as the “Japanese Dietary Intake Standards”. Of these, the “recommended amount” and “standard amount * 1” are the criteria for preventing shortages.
On the other hand, there is a “tolerable upper limit” as a standard to prevent an excessive state. This is the maximum amount that does not cause excessive illness on a daily basis.

* 1 Estimated amount: Determined when there are not enough survey results to determine the recommended amount.


The “recommended amount”, “standard amount”, and “upper tolerable amount” are values ​​for maintaining a healthy condition, but apart from that, there is a “drug dose” that is expected to have a therapeutic effect as a drug. The dosage is often many times higher than the recommended or recommended dose.


Recommended amount Maximum dosage
1 1.4mg 30mg
C 100mg 2000mg

(For men aged 30-49)

“Action” of vitamins

Vitamins have various functions in the body depending on the type. Introducing the action of the vitamin and the tips to make full use of it.

Physiological / pharmacological action

Vitamins have two functions: “physiological action”, which is indispensable for maintaining life, and “pharmacological action”, which is a drug that actively prevents and treats diseases.
Among these pharmacological actions, the one that is attracting attention for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases is the so-called “antioxidant action” of some vitamins .

antioxidant effect

Oxygen plays an important role when creating energy in the body, but at that time, a small amount of active oxygen is produced. Reactive oxygen has a good function of killing cancer cells and bacteria, and the body also has a scavenging substance that cleans up excess active oxygen, but it is bad if this active oxygen is excessively generated. There is a side to do.

For example, active oxygen oxidizes lipids in the body to produce harmful lipid peroxides that promote aging and arteriosclerosis, and these lipid peroxides become rust in the body and have an adverse effect. In fact, some vitamins have the effect of suppressing the action of active oxygen . That is what is called the “antioxidant effect” of vitamins .

However, not all vitamins have antioxidant properties, only the “pharmacological effects” found in vitamins A, C, E , and 2 . Therefore, these vitamins are called “antioxidant vitamins” in the sense that they suppress the bad effects of active oxygen and prevent the production of lipid peroxides.
In order to prevent the overproduction of active oxygen from damaging cell tissues and causing lifestyle-related diseases, it is still necessary to take a “drug dose”.

Things to watch out for in your daily life

In order to make full use of the effects of vitamins, it is important to take measures such as eating a nutritionally balanced diet, refraining from smoking, and avoiding ultraviolet rays.
Modern people are in a living environment where active oxygen is suitable for “bad”, so be careful not to run out of vitamins.

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